OVERLY EMOTIONAL DISORDER IN CHILDREN

Emotional disorder is a mental disorder in which one’s emotions are disturbed to a great extent. This disorder is not due to any abnormalities in the brain development or function. It is a psychological condition in which thoughts and emotions are not in the proper state. When the personality of an individual is exhibited by unduly emotional thinking and dramatic behaviour, it is clearly an indication of overly emotional disorder.

Overly Emotional Disorder in Children

Though the causes of emotional disorders are not very specific, there is a correlation between the disorders with certain causal factors like, exposure to prenatal drugs, experience of physical abuse, poverty, being neglected, parental stress, changing rules and expectations, confusion over long time and so on. The causes can be broadly categorized into biological, family, school or living environment.

 

List of emotional disorders

Emotional disorders list would typically cover various types of emotional disorders in various stages – from childhood to adulthood. Several such emotional disorders in children are broadly categorized into conduct disorders, emotional disturbances, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and so on. Though the list of overly emotional disorders in children is endless, the following are the frequently exhibited disorders.

 

Conduct disorders

Children suffering from conduct disorders are mostly diagnosed with anti-social behaviors, namely aggressiveness, throwing tantrums, stealing, lying, and hostility, destructive and manipulative attitude. Their noncompliance to rules and indifference towards others poses a great challenge to teachers, leading to frustration and annoyance.

 

Affective disorders

Emotional disorders list include improper eating habits, depression, and extreme stress; most of these lead to negative behaviour in the individual’s personality. In children, the most commonly encountered psychiatric emotional disorder is the change of mood. It includes depression and bipolar disorder.

 

Personality disorders

The rigid and pervasive behaviour pattern exhibited is totally different from the cultural expectations, and results in distress. The disorder may be schizotypal, showing uneasiness in close relationships or borderline, marked by uncertainty in interpersonal relationship or dependent, exhibiting a highly clinging attitude with the need to be cared for.

 

 

 

 

Anxiety disorders

The most prevalent types of emotional disorders in children are anxiety disorder. The suffering children exhibit fear, shyness and nervousness. It includes phobia, panic, obsessive-compulsive disorders, separation anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

 

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Children exhibiting over activity and short span of attention are easily diverted and are unable to consolidate their schedules.

 

Oppositional defiant disorder

Children easily lose their temper and argue a lot with others. They are quickly irritated by others and express anger often.

 

Pervasive development disorder

Distortions in the thought process of a child and delay in development is caused when the brain is incapable of processing the information. It includes autism and Asperger’s syndrome.

 

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia includes poor reasoning and judgment, hallucinations, delusions, lack of motivation and concentration.

 

Signs of emotional disorders in children

When children exhibit overly emotional disorders symptoms over a considerably long period, it affects their educational performance to a great extent. This inability to learn something cannot be attributed to intellectual, sensory or health reasons. Children suffering from any kind of overly emotional disorder cannot develop or continue a good rapport with other fellow students and tutors. Even under absolutely ordinary situations, their moods and activities are unfitting, as they experience sadness and a mood swing most of the time. They cultivate a sense of phobia related to own or school matters.

 

Children suffering from overly emotional disorders are highly impulsive and exhibit violent conduct, both on self and others. They are always anxious and have very little attentiveness. They are not bothered about following rules in the classrooms and often disturb the on-going activities. Emotionally disordered children cannot adapt to any variations in the routine setup. Such kids scheme to accuse others and find it hard to work in groups. They suffer from low self-esteem, which makes them absentees from school mostly.

Their eating habits change leading to sudden weight gain or loss. Sleeping pattern is also erratic. Some children have excess energy to be spent on exhausting activities. Rapid mood swing from extreme joyous feeling to severe depression is a common feature.

 

The usual teaching methodology cannot be applied to children with overly emotional disorders. The special education approach must be re-designed to discourage the unruly activities and encourage the preferred behaviour. The child must be diagnosed through professional clarifications by an expert psychologist.

The Trivedi Effect as reported by the people of all ages has benefited them from all the walks of life.  Many people have participated in Energy Transmission Programs through Trivedi Master Wellness, founded by Mahendra Trivedi in 2011.  People express feelings of emotional and psychological balance and an overall improved attitude towards life.

 

 Psychological Interventions

Psychological interventions are usually presented as part of the preparation for either invasive or surgical procedures, with the purpose of reducing anxiety or enhancing coping abilities, and thereby promoting recovery. Their presentation is managed in a variety of ways, during a brief interview with a psychologist, nurse, or anaesthetist, as an audiotape, or most frequently in the form of a booklet (Wallace, 1984). Ridgeway and Mathews (1982) describe five main types of psycho educational intervention that have been investigated in relation to preparation for all types of surgery. Two of these are broadly educational, that is, information-giving interventions, which provide patients with either factual or sensory descriptions of what will happen before, during and after the surgery, and behavioural instruction techniques, in which patients are taught skills which may be helpful after surgery, for example, deep breathing or specific exercises.

 

Interventions with a larger psychological component include relaxation training, modelling (in which patients observe someone else overcoming anxiety), and cognitive coping training (in which patients are encouraged to replace worries with more positive thoughts). Studies that have tested these interventions are difficult to evaluate because of the variety of outcome measures used, although early reviews concluded that all of the strategies have some potential benefits, especially if psychological and educational strategies are combined (Mumford, Schlesinger, & Glass, 1982; Weinman & Johnston, 1988). A more recent meta-analysis of 38 randomized controlled trials of psychological preparation of adult patients for a variety of types of surgery found that all of these approaches produce better-than-chance benefits on a variety of outcome measures (e.g., length of stay in hospital, negative effect, pain, satisfaction), with procedural information and behavioural instructions showing the most wideranging effects across all outcome measures, followed by relaxation training (Johnston & Vogele, 1993)

 

Studies of interventions such as these specifically in relation to gynaecological procedures have found similar results (Rafferty & Williams, 1996; Wallace, 1984). For example, Wallace (1983) found that patients given a booklet containing procedural, sensory, temporal, and coping information as well as general reassurance had significantly better recovery after laparoscopy than patients who received routine care or a booklet containing global reassurance alone. When anxiety is the outcome measure, however, increased information alone may not be helpful. Marteau, Kidd, Cuddeford, and Walker (1996) sent women referred for colposcopy either a simple booklet, containing procedural information, behavioural instructions, and outcome information, or a more complex booklet containing more detailed procedural and outcome information, and assessed their anxiety at the time of receiving the booklet and when attending the hospital. Although both booklets increased women's knowledge about the

 

Conclusion

A person experiencing chronic pain is continually in quest of relief that often remains elusive, which leads to feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, demoralization, and outright depression. Emotional distress may be attributed to various factors, including inadequate or maladaptive coping resources, iatrogenic complications, overuse of medication, disability, financial difficulties, litigation, disruption of usual activities, inadequate social support, and sleep disturbances. Thus, chronic pain represents a demoralizing situation; the individual with pain not only faces the stress created by the pain but also experiences a cascade of ongoing stressors that compromise all aspects of life. Living with chronic pain requires considerable emotional resilience, tends to deplete emotional reserve, and taxes not only the pain sufferer but also the capability of family members and significant others to provide support.

A large body of evidence demonstrates that psychological factors can interfere with or hinder a person’s ability to cope with the pain experience. As a result, psychological intervention in the assessment and treatment of chronic pain is becoming standard practice. Psychological treatment can focus on the emotional distress that accompanies chronic pain and provide education and training in the use of cognitive and behavioural techniques, which may reduce perceptions of pain and related disability. Psychologists and psychological principles have played a major role in understanding and treating people with pain, and psychologists have an important function in IPRPs as clinicians and researchers.

 

References

1. American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder,4th ed (text rev)Washington (DC):American Psychiatric Press:2000

2. Frick PJ, Ellis ML.Callous –unemotional traits and subtypes of conduct disorder

Clinical child and family psychology review 1999, 2:149-68

3. Frick PJ Conduct disorders and severe antisocial behaviour. New York Plenum,1998.

4. Zigler E, Taussing C,Black K.Early childhood intervention: a promising preventive or juvenile delinquency.AM Psychol 1992:47:997-1006